Jun 7, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – A pair of vaccines created by a Canadian-based international team of researchers protected monkeys against the lethal Ebola and Marburg viruses, according to a new report in Nature Medicine.The vaccines were made by splicing a gene from either the Ebola or the Marburg virus into a weakened version of the vesicular stomatitis virus, which causes mouth inflammation in livestock. Small groups of monkeys that received one of the two vaccines stayed completely healthy after they were exposed to a heavy dose of the corresponding virus.Publication of the findings comes as public health workers in Angola continue to battle the largest Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreak on record. The outbreak had reached 423 cases, with 357 deaths, by May 27, according to the World Health Organization. There is no vaccine or effective treatment for either Marburg or Ebola, which are fatal in most cases.The first two authors of the study, Steven M. Jones and Heinz Feldmann, have been helping to diagnose cases in Angola, according to a news release from the Public Health Agency of Canada.”When you see the tragedies these viruses cause, it’s very frustrating that we can’t do more to help people,” Feldmann said in the news release. “It’ll be some time before we can use these vaccines in the field, but it’s satisfying to know that we’re getting closer.”Jones and Feldmann work at Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg, Man. They collaborated with researchers from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and laboratories in Germany and France.The team previously created a live but weakened recombinant form of vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) and inserted a glycoprotein, or surface protein, gene from the Ebola virus into it. Later they followed the same procedure with rVSV and the glycoprotein gene from the Marburg virus.The researchers injected six cynomolgous macaques with the Ebola vaccine and another six with the Marburg vaccine. None of the animals were made ill by the vaccine. Four weeks after vaccination, four Ebola-immunized monkeys were injected with a high dose of Ebola virus, and four Marburg-immunized monkeys were injected with Marburg virus. The researchers used two Marburg-immunized monkeys and two Ebola-immunized monkeys as controls by exposing them to the noncorresponding virus.The eight monkeys that were exposed to the same virus they had been vaccinated against all stayed healthy. No signs of either virus were found in the animals’ blood, nor did they shed any virus. But the four monkeys that were exposed to the noncorresponding virus all died within 9 days after exposure.The team found evidence of both humoral (antibody) and cellular immune responses in the Ebola-immunized monkeys after they were exposed to the virus. Both kinds of responses also were seen in the Marburg-immunized monkeys after vaccination, but there was no evidence of a cellular immune response after exposure to the virus.Months after the initial experiment, the eight surviving monkeys were exposed to a different strain of Ebola or Marburg virus. When the four Ebola-immunized monkeys were inoculated with a different Ebola strain 234 days after the first test, three of them died within a week, while one survived. The four Marburg-immunized animals all stayed healthy when they were exposed to a different Marburg strain 113 days after the initial challenge.The authors say these contrasting results were not unexpected, because the two Ebola virus strains differed by 37% to 41% at the DNA level, while the two Marburg strains were 94% the same.The report says other researchers previously created an Ebola virus vaccine by inserting two of the virus’s genes into human adenoviruses. That vaccine protected monkeys, but because many people are immune to adenoviruses, such a vaccine might have limited utility in humans, the authors say.Researchers also have had some success using an engineered form of alphavirus to make a Marburg virus vaccine, according to the report. However, attempts to use alphavirus as a “platform” for an Ebola vaccine failed.The two new vaccines improve on these previous attempts, the researchers write. “This current study is the first to show that nonhuman primates can be protected with a single-dose immunization using a vector expressing solely the ZEBOV [Zaire Ebola virus] glycoprotein. In addition, this is the first vaccine platform to show the ability to protect nonhuman primates against EBOV and MARV [Ebola virus and Marburg virus], which is an important first step toward developing a vaccine that will be effective against all filoviruses.”In the news release, Dr. Thomas Geisbert of USAMRIID added that the vaccines target dendritic cells, the same cells targeted by Ebola and Marburg. “These cells are also important in generating an immune response. So the vaccine goes exactly where we want it to go,” he said.Jones SM, Feldmann H, Stroher U, et al. Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses. Nat Med 2005 Jun 5 (advance online publication) [Abstract]
Jan 22, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – Veterinary authorities in Egypt today reported H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in two governorates, as Chinese officials beefed up their avian flu reporting system and took other measures to limit human exposure to the virus.Both of Egypt’s outbreaks involved backyard poultry, according to reports posted today on the Web site of Egypt-based Strengthening Avian Influenza Detection and Response (SAIDR). The project, funded by the US Agency for International Development with assistance from Johns Hopkins University, is designed to help Egypt coordinate avian flu efforts with its international partners.One of the outbreaks involved 53 chickens, ducks, and geese in Reva village in Asyut governorate. The vaccination status of the birds is not known. Asyut governorate is located in the middle of Egypt on the banks of the Nile River.In the other outbreak, the virus struck 15 chickens, ducks, and geese in Seila Ezbet Edris village in Faiyum governorate. All of the birds had been vaccinated in 2008, the SAIDR report said. Faiyum governorate is in north-central Egypt, about 80 miles southwest of Cairo.Elsewhere, provincial officials in eastern China yesterday banned the raising of poultry in Shandong province’s cities to curb the transmission of the H5N1 virus to humans, Agence France-Presse reported. Xinhua, China’s state news agency, said the ban, which went into effect yesterday, follows the Jan 17 death of a 27-year-old woman from an H5N1 infection. She was from Jinan, Shandong’s capital.A statement from the World Health Organization on the woman’s death said investigators were still trying to determine the source of the woman’s infection.In other developments, China’s health ministry said today that it launched a daily avian influenza reporting system for humans and birds, according to a report from the Associated Press. The action follows four recent H5N1 cases in China, three of them fatal.The health, agriculture, and commerce ministries have ordered provincial departments to provide daily reports on infections, the AP report said. Daily reporting was also conducted during previous outbreaks of H5N1 and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome).See also:Jan 19 WHO statement
American Lung Association recommends closing affiliated summer campsThe American Lung Association (ALA) has asked about 50 summer camps with which it is affiliated with to close, after four children who attended one of the camps were diagnosed with H1N1 flu, the Associated Press (AP) reported yesterday. An ALA spokeswoman said she wasn’t sure how many ALA camps would follow the advice. Patients who have asthma and other chronic conditions are at greater risk for flu complications. In June the Muscular Dystrophy Association canceled its camps for similar reasons.California nurses detail complaint about masksThe California Nurses Association yesterday detailed the complaints of nurses at a Vallejo hospital about inadequate respiratory protection to care for patients with novel flu. They said the hospital had too few N95 masks, and the masks were not properly fitted. Also, they said they were asked to reuse masks repeatedly and to wear surgical masks over the N95s. A hospital official told the Associated Press that only one employee had confirmed H1N1 flu and that the masks could be safely reused.[Jul 14 California Nurses Association press release]Australia and Chile each exceed 10,000 H1N1 casesAustralia and Chile have both counted more than 10,000 H1N1 flu cases, according to reports today from Agence France-Presse (AFP) and Reuters. In Australia, which has had 22 deaths, patients’ average age is 19, and authorities are worried about a growing number of serious cases in young, otherwise healthy people, according to AFP. Chile has had 33 deaths, and its case count is the highest in South America, according to Reuters.Tonga reports first H1N1 casesThe South Pacific archipelago of Tonga has reported its first two cases of novel H1N1 flu, according to a report today from Radio Australia News. Blood tests conducted in Australia confirmed the illness in two women, one a resident and the other a visitor from Brisbane, Australia, the report said.[Radio Australia report]
Steve Heapy, CEO of Jet2.com and Jet2holidays, said that “The UK government has confirmed that flights to destinations within the European Union will continue as before, regardless of the outcome of Brexit, and tourists can continue to book flights with confidence. We are also delighted to take this opportunity to announce a summer program for 2020 that will give tourists and travel agencies even more choice and flexibility than ever before.” Tickets for Zadar in the period from May to early November 2020 have already been put on sale, and flights are from London Stansted and Manchester airports. 30 seats are expected for Zadar in that period. Jet2holidays.com The third largest airline in the UK and the second largest travel organizer, budget airline Jet2, has announced on its website two new destinations for the summer of 2020. It is about the Greek Preveza and our Zadar. The announcement in which they represent Zadar is transmitted in its entirety: “Zadar is located on the spectacular Dalmatian coast. It is one of the most dynamic and exciting cities in Croatia, and in it you can find Roman and Venetian ruins, religious buildings and churches, beautiful promenades, magnificent bays and large monasteries. Also, around Zadar there are many islands and some of the most famous Croatian national parks and resorts such as Petrčane, Biograd, Šibenik and Vodice.” TOURISTS FROM THE UK WILL NOT NEED EU VISAS AFTER BREXIT Namely, there are already lines to Dubrovnik, Split and Pula. With this expansion of Croatian destinations, 400 seats with over 50 flights a week will be on sale during the peak season. The important news is that British citizens will be able to enter the European Union without visas even after the country leaves the EU, but only for short trips, but also under the condition that EU citizens can enter the UK without visas, he made a decision a couple of years ago. days European Parliament. More attached. From the summer of 2, Jet2020 planes will fly to as many as four destinations in Croatia.
A new part of the passenger terminal of Split Airport was opened on Saturday. Construction began in January 2017, the entire project covered an area of about 125.000 m2, and the Use Permit was obtained on July 11, 2019. South of the state road D409, a new parking lot for cars with 900 parking spaces, with an area of 30.000 m2, and a bus terminal with 50 parking spaces, with an area of 40.000 m2, were built. The project included the expansion of the passenger building, the construction of a car park, a bus terminal and a pedestrian bridge, followed by the reconstruction of the existing passenger building. Split Airport has thus expanded the passenger building by adding three floors, with a total of 35.000 new m2, and now with the existing passenger space has a total of 50.000 m2, thus ensuring a high standard of service for 2.500 passengers during peak hours. The total capacity of the passenger terminal (newly built and old) is 5 million passengers per year. Upgrading and reconstruction of the passenger building harmonizes the capacities with the expected traffic demand, while satisfying the high level of safety and quality of services, as well as ensuring the conditions for the implementation of EU standards (Schengen criteria) for international border crossings. The current growth of passenger traffic at Split Airport is 8% compared to last year. There were over 515.000 passengers in June, and about 700.000 passengers are expected in July. A total of 3,3 million passengers are expected this year. Photo: Government of the Republic of Croatia
The Port of Rijeka Authority presented two new floating pontoons that enable the reception of cruise ships and merchant ships up to 295 meters long and draft up to 9 meters. Cruise ships with a draft of more than 7 meters have so far been moored at the Brajdica container terminal. Two new floating pontoons measuring approximately 9 meters x 6,5 meters placed along the Rijeka breakwater ensure the mooring of larger cruise ships and, if necessary, larger merchant ships. From May to the end of October, the Port of Rijeka Authority expects 41 cruise ships with 74.000 passengers and 30.600 crew members. This means that next year Rijeka will be visited by twice as many cruise ships and twice as many passengers and crew members (105.600 people) than this year. The data are not final because the announcements for the next season are still in progress and the final number of docks may be higher after the conclusion of the announcements. The pontoons were made by the company Dalmont doo The total value of the investment is HRK 1.944,092,75, and it is financed by the Rijeka Port Authority’s own funds. “This investment provided the possibility of mooring cruisers and larger merchant ships on the Rijeka breakwater”, Said the director of the Port of Rijeka, Denis Vukorepa, and added that preparations are underway for the implementation of a new berth in the southern part of Molo Long, which would be a long-term berth for all passenger ships. The presentation was organized on the occasion of the docking of the cruise ship “Marella Celebration”. The City of Rijeka, the Tourist Board of the City of Rijeka, the Tourist Board of Kvarner and the Port of Rijeka Authority have been jointly implementing a number of activities for the development of Rijeka into a recognizable cruising destination in Kvarner for several years. The new floating pontoons provide the Port of Rijeka with the necessary additional capacities for the upcoming cruising season in 2020, when Rijeka, as the European Capital of Culture, will host twice as many ships. Source / photo: City of Rijeka
The great news is that no major irregularities have been reported. “We can proudly say that Croatia is currently the leader not only in European but also in world tourism. Our caterers, as shown by the results of previous inspections, are ready to welcome domestic and foreign tourists.Said Mikulic. Out of the total number of monitored facilities, most inspections were performed in hotels, 81 of them, while 41 inspections were performed in camps. In 142 coordinated inspections, 44 violations of regulations were recorded, and in as many as 36 cases, inspectors were guided by the principle of opportunity and ordered the correction of irregularities that were mostly eliminated at the time of supervision. The most common injuries were related to minor non-compliance with the minimum requirements and minor deficiencies in non-compliance with sanitary and hygienic conditions in these facilities. At the end of July, a total of 142 coordinated inspections were carried out by sanitary and tourism inspectors of the state inspectorate, in an action to monitor the operations of hotels, camps and nautical tourism ports “marina”, as well as catering facilities and tourism service providers operating within these facilities. “We must be satisfied that the number of violations is significantly lower than last year. This is a clear indication that the new way of working of the State Inspectorate is well accepted in the field”Said Mikulic and added that the goal is not to punish but to encourage business in accordance with legal regulations. Tourist inspectors primarily monitor the legality and fulfillment of legal obligations prescribed by the conditions for the type and category of facility, while sanitary inspectors monitor the fulfillment of legal obligations in the field of food safety, water, protection from infectious diseases and compliance with anti-epidemiological measures and social distancing measures. instructions of the Croatian Institute of Public Health, in order to avoid the risk of infection with COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Elements of control in supervision For the first time, supervised entities can find the document “Elements of control in supervision“Which states that inspectors monitor everything. Therefore, it is not surprising that most of the supervised entities did not record any violations of regulations, and finally entrepreneurs know exactly what the rules are, what exactly must be met by law and what inspectors will control. Coordinated inspections of tourism and sanitary inspectors continue during August.